## Apl programming assignment help

**Introduction**

Apl stands for "a programming language." it was created in the 1960's by ken iverson and his colleagues at ibm. Mathematically inspired, its main purpose was to serve as a powerful executable notation for mathematical algorithms. What apl is best known for is its use of non-ascii symbols, including some greek letters. It is a dynamically typed interactive, array oriented language with a dynamic scope. In apl, all expressions are evaluated from right to left.

Apl (named after the book a programming language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by kenneth e. Iverson. Its central datatype is the multidimensional array. It uses a large range of special graphic symbols to represent most functions and operators, leading to very concise code. It has been an important influence on the development of concept modeling, spreadsheets, functional programming, and computer math packages. It has also inspired several other programming languages. It is still used today for certain applications.

Apl (a programming language) is a general-purpose, third-generation (3gl) programming language that allows certain data manipulations to be expressed with a special non-ascii set of symbols, resulting in programs that are shorter than would be possible using most other languages. Apl's notation allows matrix manipulation as well as recursion functions to be built into simple expressions rather than requiring multiple language statements. Apl is more frequently thought of as a language for scientific computation, but it can be used for other purposes as well. Programs can be developed interactively and are usually interpretedrather than compiled. The special symbols require keyboard support and specific editors so that the symbols can be displayed and printed.

Apl began life as a notation for expressing mathematical procedures. Its originator, dr kenneth iverson, published his notation in 1962 in a book called 'a programming language' from which title the name apl derives. Subsequently iverson's notation was implemented on various computers and did indeed become 'a programming language'. The specification of the language was substantially enhanced during the 1980's, notably by dr james brown in ibm's apl2, giving rise to the term 'second generation apl' to cover those versions of apl that included the enhanced specifications. The development of the apl language has continued in the 21st century. Whilst retaining compatibility with apl2, aplx version 4 adds object-oriented language extensions, as well as a large number of other facilities, to the language.

Apl has a powerful repertoire of functions (i.e. Operations it can perform). These include a full range of sophisticated mathematical functions and a range of data manipulative functions which can do anything from a simple sort to a matrix inversion. These functions can be combined so that on a single line you have a series of functions interacting dynamically, one function's results forming the next function's data. Apl also has operators which modify the way in which functions are applied. This gives you a range of general purpose building-blocks which can easily be combined in a very flexible and consistent manner. This flexibility combined with apl's ability to handle complicated data makes it a uniquely powerful language.

**Apl symbols**

The syntax of most programming languages is restricted to the ascii character set, which was originally designed for use in commercial data processing with very limited hardware, and which lacks even a basic multiply symbol. As a result, most programming languages resort to compromises such as using the asterisk symbol for multiply, and compound symbols such as <= to mean 'less-than-or-equal' or ** to mean 'power'. Apl is not limited to the ascii characters; instead, it uses a range of symbols to represent its built-in functions. This permits the apl user to carry out a wide range of programming tasks in a very concise manner. There are no reserved words in apl. The symbolic nature of apl gives it an international appeal which transcends different national languages.

Apl is convenient to use for many reasons. In the first place, it's concise. A very few lines of apl can do a lot of work. Then it's an essentially interactive language. As you write each line or function you can try it out and get immediate feedback. It's also a fully dynamic language, which means that you do not have to specify in advance what is valid for a given data item or function; you can just use it immediately. Apl is a computer programming language unlike any other. This is obvious from the first instant you see an apl program: an apl program doesn't even look like other computer programs! --apl programs look more like algebraic formulas.... One internet dictionary of programming languages describes apl thus: "famous for its enormous character set, and for being able to write whole accounting packages or air traffic control systems with a few incomprehensible key strokes."

Apl is a computer programming implementation of a notation kenneth e. Iverson, while he was a professor at harvard, in the late 1950s, invented ("iverson notation"), to facilitate succinctly describing certain mathematical propositions, and also to help teach mathematics (my view on this latter item, the notation came first; only later was the notation implemented as acomputer programming language [apl], after iverson came to ibm, in the early 1960s. The heart of apl is a set of powerful built-in functions, which can be combined by indefinitely "nesting" functions, as the result obtained from evaluating one function becomes a parameter for the next higher-level function. Such "functional composition" is not unique to apl; most programming languages provide this facility. But the wordiness of other programming languages tends to limit use of this feature in practice; apl's succinctness, on the other hand, tends to encourage its use -- apl's detractors say: too much use, i.e., abuse. Apl is as succinct as algebra, but with a powerful set of functions that do far more than add, subtract, multiply, divide, exponentiate and take roots of numbers (some apl functions take other functions as parameters!).... Aplfunctions can be applied to multi-dimensional arrays of arrays [of arrays...], as easily and succinctly as they can be applied to atomic items. To add a million dollars to everyone in the world's bank account, simply define an array with an element for every account in the world, "a", and add a million to each element in the array: "a <- a + 1000000". (clearly, apl lends itself naturally to massively parallel processing!)

A frequently heard argument against apl is that 80% of computer programming is maintenance, and apl programs are unmaintainable: even from the beginning, no one but the author can understand the code, and, after some time has passed, even (s)he can no longer understand it. Of course the detractors of apl conveniently forget to mention that non-trivial programs written in any language tend to become, over time, what joseph weizenbaum (1978) called: "incomprehensible programs". And surely one would want to be careful in letting programmers' imaginations run amok with "mission critical" applications such as air traffic and nuclear power plant control systems -- i.e., the non-apl applications to which weizenbaum originally applied his admonitory appellation....

Thousands of programming languages were invented in the first 50 years of the age of computing. Many of them were similar, and many followed a traditional, evolutionary path from their predecessors. But some revolutionary languages had a slant that differentiated them from their more general-purpose brethren. Lisp was for list processing. Snobol was for string manipulation. Simscript was for simulation. And apl was for mathematics, with an emphasis on array processing.

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